Quark charge calculations
The quarks are sub-atomic particles present in hadrons (protons and neutrons). The Standard Model of Physics for biochemistry uses fractional charges on quarks for the determination of the overall charge on the proton (+1) and neutron (0).
This model is based on the following mathematical calculations
proton Up quark charge of +2/3 and Down quark charge of -1/3
The proton contains two Up quarks and one Down quark. The charge calculation is +2/3 + -1/3 +2/3 = +1
And the neutron charge calculation is as follows
Down quark -1/3 + Up quark +2/3 and Down quark -1/3 = 0
This model is one approach to determine quark charge calculations for the proton of (+1) and the neutron of zero charge.
However, this model has no connection to the charges on positrons (+1) and electrons (-1). The charge on the proton is (+1.602E-19 C) and the charge on the electron is (-1.602E-19 C).
The proton and the electron have equal and opposite charges. Why? Well, the universe started with zero mass, zero charge, zero space and zero time. To maintain CPT, charge and time parity we have to maintain a zero charge throughout the entire universe. If you add all the positive charges together it has to equal the total number of negative charges.
I use a different quark charge calculation for the Boson statistical analysis of the helium Bose Einstein Condensate and therefore for atoms in biology. I use charge parity with positron and electron pairs. Why? Well, if you want to understand how biology operates you must have a model that is aligned to reality and not just a physical external model that only shows 5% of the matter-based universe that Western science has developed. Unfortunately, this external physical model for matter cannot be used for biology.
So, the model that I have come up with has to use +1 and -1 for the quark charges because that is what is present on positrons and electrons. My model (SUSY inversion) identifies that quarks are positrons and electrons that are inverted (turned inside out). Therefore, the positive charge on the positron becomes the negative charge on the Up quark. The negative charge on the electron becomes the positive charge on the Down quark. This model uses the following calculations for the hadron's neutrons and protons.
Proton Up Down Up (-1 x +1 x -1 = +1)
Neutron Down Up Down (+1 x -1 x +1 = -1)
This model uses the pairing of +1 and -1 to give a consistent charge with positron and electron and therefore maintains charge parity.
The Neutron in the Standard model of physics has an overall charge of 0 and in my SUSY inversion model, I introduce positrons +1, to cancel out the neutron's -1 charge to get an overall charge of 0. So, the proton +1 and electron -1 are mirror symmetry partners of the neutron -1 and positron -1. This model corrects the Baryonic asymmetry issue and identifies the missing antimatter. It is merely a logical model that does not require measurements to be made.
We already know that the current model fails because it cannot identify 95% of the universe. This approach identifies the missing 95% of the universe. See the pages on dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE).
There are some interesting follow-on consequences of this model. One can understand these if you consider a new starting geometry for the T0 time before the beginning of the universe.
Also, we know that the neutron is larger than the proton. We also know that the neutron decays into a proton and an electron and the antineutrino. The neutron is not stable and the potential reason for this is the presence of the positron. The inversion model suggests that the electron has a positive charge on its inside surface and a negative charge on the outside surface. The positron has a positive charge on its outside surface and a negative charge on the inside surface. Having such a model allows the interchange of charge from the inside and the outside through the inversion of the electron into the singularity within the atom. The inversion event occurs through beta plus and beta minus decay where the positron becomes the quark of the opposite charge. The electron becomes the quark of the opposite charge.
Again, this model suggests that the singularity within the atom in 1/c^2 gives an atom the ability to invert charge and create quarks out of positrons and electrons. The role of quarks, hadrons, gluons and mesons will be explored on another page.