Cosmic energy background calculations
The following is a list of notable unsolved problems grouped into broad areas of physics.
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result. The others are experimental, meaning that there is a difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory or investigate a phenomenon in greater detail.
There are still some questions beyond the Standard Model of physics, such as the strong CP problem, neutrino mass, matter–antimatter asymmetry, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. Another problem lies within the mathematical framework of the Standard Model itself—the Standard Model is inconsistent with that of general relativity, to the point that one or both theories break down under certain conditions (for example within known spacetime singularities like the Big Bang and the centers of black holes beyond the event horizon).
I intent to provide the details regarding the issues associated with the standard model of physics and provide ideas that solve the issues outlined above. My SUSY inversion model provides a lot of the answers to these problems. My singularity physics model is based on Einstein's equation of E = mc^2. I have focused on using Newtons models based on non measured logical thinking as measurement breaks the basis of symmetry which in the current thinking is considered nothing where in my model is two things in balanced symmetry of opposites like yin yang.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations from the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data seen over the full sky. The image is a projection of the temperature variations over the celestial sphere. The average temperature is 2.725 Kelvin degrees above absolute zero (absolute zero is equivalent to -273.15 ºC or -459 ºF). The triple point of helium is 2.177 degrees Kelvin which is colder than the background radiation present in the universe, therefore suggesting that a Bose Einstein Condensate of helium could not remain stable in our current universe given the latent heat present.
The scale of the universe is also determined using the inversion SUSY model where the speed of light is used as the radius of the Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC). When this assumption is made we get the following information.
Radius of the BEC c = 299792458 m/s. The volume of the sphere is 1.13E27 m3
Meters of alpha particles traveled through the age of the universe 1.30558E26 after 13.8 billion light years.
Times the initial radius of the universe prior to expansion 3.91403E34 (alpha particles out). The inversion of the distance traveled inward by (4 electrons) 1/3.91403E34 = 2.55491E-35. Then the entire universe 3.91403E34 / 2.55491E-35 = 5.11009E60. That is one radius of the universe (hemisphere) based on spherical expansion in all directions in SUSY inversion model. The implosion (opposite to expansion) also giving rise to the Planck length distance of 1.6 x 10^-35 meter.
Expansion out by opposite directions of alpha particles gives the following calculation.
5.11009E60 x 5.11009E60 = 2.6113E121
The inversion of that in SUSY is 1/ 2.6113E121 = 3.8295E-122 background energy without hubble expansion taken into account. Universe expansion due to continued alpha particle emission and the alpha particle decay processes creating matter from the initial event 13.8 billion light years ago where no matter was present (only dark energy and dark matter).
The expansion of the universe with the hubble constant of 4225 (see calculations below).
hubble constant 70 (km/s)/Mpc or 70000 m/s / mpc
1 megaparsec (3.09×1019 km) away or 3.09E+22 m /mpc
radius = 299792458 m/s and Diameter = 599584916 meters
Age of the universe 1.38E+11 light years
4.13714E+19 meters / year
31557600 seconds / year
1.30558E+27 meters or 1.30558E+24 km
1 megaparsec is 3.09E+20 km
So the number of mpc / age universe is 4225.180599
At the speed of light
Hubble constant / mpc age of universe = 0.986557981
Inversion of hubble/c = 4282.7494
Slowed down by +/- 1.363% due to expansion
So the level of energy based on the expansion of the universe is 3.8295E-122 x 4225 = 1.618E-118. As the universe expanded it expands faster the further away it is from the initial point based on the hubble constant.
The average between no expansion and all expansion over each megaparsec due to the symmetry in number theory and the expansion building on itself as it expands means the average of the two extremes provides the actual number. So taking account of expansion based on the Hubble constant then...
SQRT(3.8295E-122 x 1.618E-118) = 24892E-120 which is the background energy level of the universe at the Planck length.
My model provides an answer to the composition of dark matter and dark energy see speed of light calculations. My model also allows a calculation for the background energy at the Planck length based on the universe expansion from the Bose Einstein Condensate that had a radius of the speed of light and implosion and explosion or alpha particle emission occurred at the point of super symmetry inversion where every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
Here are the Wiki details on the cosmological calculations. See below. As my model suggests everything was present prior to the beginning of time, this is consistent with the idea that energy cannot be destroyed or created but only transformed. It previously has not been seen through measurement as it does not contain any contrast and without out contrast the object does not have a beginning or end and therefore it cannot be observed. When measurements are made the symmetry is lost and therefore it becomes observable but no longer symmetrical and therefore the very act of measuring disturbs what was present prior to the act of measuring. My hypothesis of dark energy is alpha particles and dark matter as Planck lengths not what is being proposed below. Also, alpha particle decay has created matter.
Since the 1990s, studies have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to so-called dark energy. The cosmological constant Λ is the simplest possible explanation for dark energy, and is used in the current standard model of cosmology known as the ΛCDM model.
Liquid helium retains kinetic energy and does not freeze regardless of temperature due to zero-point energy. When cooled below its Lambda point, it exhibits properties of superfluidity This quantum fluid, liquid waters of the universe concept is held by Eastern philosophy.
According to quantum field theory (QFT) which underlies modern particle physics, empty space is defined by the vacuum state which is a collection of quantum fields. All these quantum fields exhibit fluctuations in their ground state (lowest energy density) arising from the zero-point energy present everywhere in space. These zero-point fluctuations should act as a contribution to the cosmological constant Λ, but when calculations are performed these fluctuations give rise to an enormous vacuum energy. The discrepancy between theorized vacuum energy from quantum field theory and observed vacuum energy from cosmology is a source of major contention, with the values predicted exceeding observation by some 120 orders of magnitude, a discrepancy that has been called "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics". This issue is called the cosmological constant problem and it is one of the greatest mysteries in science with many physicists believing that "the vacuum holds the key to a full understanding of nature".
The recurrence of large numbers close or related to 1060 in the above table is a coincidence that intrigues some theorists. It is an example of the kind of large numbers coincidence that led theorists such as Eddington and Dirac to develop alternative physical hypotheses (e.g. a variable speed of light or Dirac varying-G hypothesis). After the measurement of the cosmological constant in 1998, estimated at 10−122 in Planck units, it was noted that this is suggestively close to the reciprocal of the age of the universe squared. Barrow and Shaw (2011) proposed a modified theory in which Λ is a field evolving in such a way that its value remains Λ ~ T−2 throughout the history of the universe.
The Planck length is related to Planck energy by the uncertainty principle. At this scale, the concepts of size and distance break down, as quantum indeterminacy becomes virtually absolute. Because the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole is roughly equal to the Compton wavelength at the Planck scale, a photon with sufficient energy to probe this realm would yield no information whatsoever. Any photon energetic enough to measure precisely a Planck-sized object could actually create a particle of that dimension, but it would be massive enough to immediately become a black hole (see Planck particle). This is the most extreme example possible of the uncertainty principle, and explains why only a quantum gravity theory reconciling general relativity with quantum mechanics will allow us to understand the dynamics of space-time at this scale. Planck scale dynamics are important for cosmology because by tracing the evolution of the cosmos back to the very beginning, at some very early stage the universe should have been so hot that processes involving energies as high as the Planck energy (corresponding to distances as short as the Planck length) may have occurred. This period is therefore called the Planck era or Planck epoch.
My model of alpha particle emission from the BCE of liquid helium that produced 4 electrons in and 12 electrons out in the symmetry of opposites provides an alternative solution to the current thinking which is somewhat easier to understand as the laws at the atomic scale maintain Newtonian principles as Einstein's equation can be rearranged into a Newton format where
m = E/c^2
If r = c then Newtons laws can be applied. This is the concept I have used in the above in the calculation of the BCE of helium to give the background energy number. This non measured logical approach means
Planck length = 1.6 x 10^-35 meter
two Planck lengths = electron where 4 x 10^-18 meter
two electrons gives a photon, where the distance between the electrons corresponds to a wavelength of energy.
Two photons gives hydrogen, the first stable element in the periodic table.
Hydrogen goes from the symmetry quantum state (light where it has no mass and no charge) to the asymmetry where it has mass and charge. Biology is based on this conversion to create all forms of matter and energy.
Understanding how hydrogen is key to health and vitality through the exchange of symmetry (no mass and no charge quantum state) to asymmetry structural building block of biology is key economic transformation and health transformation. I next plan to discuss the neutron / proton stability instability hypothesis.