# Speed of light calculations

What is the origin of the speed of light?
Light / electromagnetism has a speed of  299792458 m/in a vacuum.
My hypothesis is that the constant light speed originates from a Bose Einstein Condensate of helium that has all its electrons at a constant distance apart of 0.00004 nm. This quantum liquid has no contrast and under a certain set of ideal conditions the emission of alpha particles (12 electrons) are emitted and 4 electrons travel inwards towards each other. So both an implosion and an explosion occurred at the beginning of time 13.8 billion light years ago.

Evidence supporting this hypothesis is provided from the following calculations.

Helium-4 ( 4. He ) is a stable isotope of the element helium. It is by far the more abundant of the ... Spin, 0. Binding energy, 28300.7 keV. Isotopes of helium (Ref. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helium-4).

The binding energy is 28300.7 keV which corresponds to 28300700 eV, 6843079113.71277 THz, and 0.00004 nm. This provides the geometry of the average distance of electrons packed in the helium Bose Einstein Condensate. The calculation of the binding kinetics based on the average bond distance of 0.00004 nm is 2,990,637,811 KJ/mol.

The alpha particle travels at 10% of the speed of light and originates from the binding energy of Helium-4.

The current speed of light in a vacuum is 299,792,458 m/s. Approximately 10% of the KJ/mol binding energy is 299,063,781.1 m/s. This gives 10.02436527% the speed of light. The small error of 0.02% could relate to the change of the speed of light over 13.8 billion light years and may relate to the observations of the universe expanding. An error of +/- 0.02436 % to the known current speed?

### Alpha decay | physics | Britannica

The speed and hence the energy of an alpha particle ejected from a given nucleus is a specific property of the parent nucleus and determines the characteristic range or distance the alpha particle travels. Though ejected at speeds of about one-tenth that of light, alpha particles are not very penetrating. They have ranges in air of only about one to four inches (corresponding to an energy range of about 4 million to 10 million electron volts).
The principal alpha emitters are found among the elements heavier than bismuth (atomic number 83) and also among the rare-earth elements from neodymium (atomic number 60) to lutetium (atomic number 71). Half-lives for alpha decay range from about a microsecond (10−6 second) to about 1017 seconds.

Based on these numbers I am suggesting that alpha particle emission from a Bose Einstein Condensate of Helium is responsible for the speed of light based on a binding energy of 2,990,637,811 KJ/mol that is  10 times grater than the speed of light. As alpha particles can travel up to 10% of the speed of light this would produce a speed near identical to c of 299,063,781.1 m/s.

What other aspects of this concept fit the model that I am proposing?
I have added positrons back into the model of helium where the negative charge on the neutron is cancelled out by the +1 charge of the positron. This accounts for the larger size of the neutron compared to the proton as it includes the positron in the mass calculation as well as the charge calculation. Given this new symmetry model and the presence of 16 electrons in the Bose Einstein Condensate of helium further analysis is needed to explore the concepts of dark matter and dark energy and matter origin.

These calculations are included here.

My hypothesis suggests that 25% of the electrons (4 travel in) and 75% travel out (12 or the alpha particle). The ratio is 3 and 1. Inward toward the Planck length of 1.6 x 10^-35 meter. Outward to produce the distance light has travelled after 13.8 billion light years to 6.25 x 10^34 meters. After 13.8 billion light years, based on 10^17 seconds for alpha decay rate, 7.26% alpha particle decay would have occurred. 13.8 billion light years is 10^18 seconds.

The hypothesis suggests that 4/16 electrons go in which is 25% (dark matter) and have traveled inward to create the Planck length after 13.8 billion light years and 12/16 electrons (75% dark energy) as the alpha particle travel outward for 13.8 billion light years. So at T0 at the beginning of time the ratio was 3 and 1 or 25% dark matter and 75% dark energy and no matter.

The stability or half life of the alpha particle is 10^17 seconds whereas the current age of the universe is 10^18 seconds. The decomposition of the alpha particle after this length of time equates to 7.26%.

This suggest 75% - 7.26% = 68%, which is the current amount of dark energy predicted by physics. This suggests that the alpha particle emitted at the start of the universe from the Bose Einstein Condensate is the origin of dark energy. So alpha particles are responsible for dark energy.

The 25% dark matter originally produced at the time of the SUSY Inversion event at the commencement of time corresponds to 27% dark matter. This suggests that the Planck length is dark matter as it is smaller than our current limits of detection and therefore cannot be detected. The 7.26% alpha particle decay appears to have produced 5% matter and 2.26% virtual particles which are probably short lived radicals. The calculations performed provided further support for the idea of the Bose Einstein Condensate of helium was present prior to the beginning of time. The quantum entanglement that occurs within the Bose Einstein Condensate suggests that there is one universe from which this universe was created.

It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energyDark matter makes up about 27%. The rest - everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter - adds up to less than 5% of the universe.

So my model based on SUSY inversion provides the ability to predict the universe as we know it today originating from a Bose Einstein Condensate of Helium. I wonder if the male aspect of God comes from He of helium 4/2. This also fits the liquid waters of the universe concept in Eastern philosophy as helium is a quantum liquid near absolute zero. It therefore appear that SUSY inversion model is able to predict the universe and it is the unified field theory that unifies everything as one thing and that based on just electrons.

If this makes sense and appears logical well that is because it is based on +1 and -1 and the symmetry of opposites for quark calculations based on multiplication and not the current standard model of physics which uses addition and 2/3 and -1/3 and adding. So the inclusion of positrons into the standard model to counter  balance the charge on neutrons provides the symmetry back into the model that was lost through the act of measuring. This happens to be a scientific explanation that makes sense and can predict the observed measurements of the universe as we know it.