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level 6 science

Things start to get very interesting when you consider that MGO is a double edged sword where it is implicated in diabetes and other diseases in the body in relation to sugar and DHAP dephosphorylation to produce dihydroxyacetone (DHA) the MGO precursor that is thought to be the origin of MGO in Manuka honey. I have an alternative hypothesis as to the origin of MGO and I will provide that in level 8. The MGO has been shown to inhibit glucose oxidase and therefore prevent hydrogen peroxide formation, and that is why Manuka honey is considered to have non-peroxide antimicrobial activity.

Additional evidence includes the presence of the glyoxylase biological pathway which has been implicated as a detoxification system, however, others imply that it is involved in energy production. It results in the production of lactate and can lead to the generation of pyruvate via an alternative set of steps that also links directly to a cells redox potential via glutathione. The links to energy provide an alternative perspective with respect to the role MGO is having in a cell.

MGO glyoxylase pathway

The role of phenolics to modulate this system that is critical to cellular metabolism implies that anti-oxidants creates structural stability with the potential for the accumulation of cellular damage. The removal of cellular damage and cell apoptosis requires hydroxyl radicals. The pro-oxidant properties of phenolics relates to binding of minerals to the phenolic, which can then perform photo-fenton chemistry to generate hydroxyl radicals. This allows the proteins to be broken down into carbon dioxide and water. This has the potential to remove damaged biological tissues, allowing renewal to occur. This is where the regenerative benefits of Manuka honey originate and why wound healing using Manuka honey heals without scarring, allowing restoration of biological functionality. 

The ability to using this healing energy without the high sugar content is what we have achieved. If you want to see the product in action then take a look at level 7.