Radical chemistry

Why do radicals have beneficial properties in our bodies?

Oxidative burst

Well, radical chemistry provides anti-microbial properties and radicals are paramagnetic so provide us a sense of magnetic north. The heart produces a magnetic field which impacts a persons radicals so when you are producing more radicals in your body you are more sensitive to the subtle energies in the fields around you.

Radicals play an important role in a persons vitality. The electron transport chain which is involved in generating the proton gradient in the human body and responsible for the formation of ATP in the mitochondria in conjunction with ATPase in the membrane. This also produces water through combining oxygen and hydrogen.

Radicals also play a role in modulating enzyme activity and biochemical pathways.

biochemical pathways

Cathepsin B which has a thiol (-SH) at the active site and is involved in endocytosis and cell migration is inhibited by radicals and has been shown to be inhibited by Manuka honey due to the generation of radicals.

The extracellular cascade (outside of the cell), receives signals from the external environment.

The extracellular energy cascade

This cascade of reactions looks similar to the one that occurs in the mitochondria.

etc 

If you look at our own biochemical pathways for the generation of energy using the current standard understanding of oxidative phosphorylation based on glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. One electron at a time should give a clue that energy is harvested from radicals. Biology has  evolved to capture energy from the quantum field and to do that it needs to be sensitive to paramagnetic energy which is obtained from radicals. This provides opportunities for limitless power. 

Radical role in quantum entanglement

Radicals also have an important role in quantum entanglement. How is matter held together in a coherent orderly fashion so that it works together without falling apart and without doing something that it should not do as shown in this example where radicals have generated a quantum entangled solution which responds coherently at different frequencies of light to create structure.

 

Fenton chemistry and the hydroxyl radical is the most powerful oxidant but it also creates molecules in this process.

(1) Fe2+  + H2O2  → Fe3+  + HO• + OH–

(2) Fe3+  + H2O2  → Fe2+  + HOO• + H+

Iron(II)  is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to  iron(III), forming a  hydroxyl radical  and a  hydroxide ion  in the process. Iron(III) is then reduced back to iron(II) by another molecule of hydrogen peroxide, forming a  hydroperoxyl  radical and a  proton. The net effect is a  disproportionation  of hydrogen peroxide to create two different oxygen-radical species, with water (H+  +  OH–) as a byproduct.

Both copper and iron can form hydroxyl radicals.

radicals 2

Production of neurotransmitters 

Production of neurotransmitters also can occur through radical chemistry. Both hydroxylation and methylation are processes that can occur to produce the range of neurotransmitters in the body.

hydroxylation of neurotransmittersGeneration of hydroxylation of tyrosine to produce L-DOPA and the production of the neutransmitter dopamine. This requires Fe2+ which is the form of iron that forms hydroxyl radicals with hydrogen peroxide.

Redox Biology Volume 10, December 2016, Pages 233-242. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic signaling via labile iron chelation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2016.10.006

Yes, radicals are important. Anti-oxidants are also important. They capture the radials to create molecules that the body uses. The hydroxyl group on neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine are created by hydroxylation and the enzyme has Fe2+ at the active site. Radical chemistry creates OH* and creates the exact same structure but it does it much faster 1 billionth of a second. More control by the enzyme creating a contained environment for the hydroxylation but the reaction results in the same outcome enzyme and radical. The evolutionary process started in the quantum world and moves into the physical world only because we take notice and measure. More energy, natural biochemical energy healing using quantum processes. 

Cancer and radicals and their role in apoptosis

Cancer is an adaptive response to stopping the normal radical chemistry that occurs in our bodies. As cancer is a disease of a cell failing to undergo apoptosis (pre-programmed cell death) cell proliferation ensures which creates a new cancer cell which adapts to its environment by changing its gene expression to survive.

Hydroxyl radical mediates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes through Bcl-2-dependent mechanism. Apoptosis. 2011 Aug;16(8):769-82. doi: 10.1007/s10495-011-0609-x. by S Luanpitpong - ‎2011.  Studies using specific ROS scavengers further showed that hydroxyl radical, but not hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion, is the primary oxidative species responsible for the apoptotic effect of cisplatin. Electron spin resonance studies confirmed the formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by cisplatin. 

apoptosis

Figure 8: Radicals processes in cell apoptosis (pre-programmed cell death) and production of apoptotic bodies

Apoptosis requires hydroxyl radicals to breakdown the biomaterials into CO2 and Water. Cellular damage occurs to convert biological molecules into CO2 and H2O. So radicals are important in biological signaling as well as cellular recycling events including the biologically important role of apoptosis. Without apoptosis we would develop cellular proliferation diseases which leads to cancer formation.

What if we have got it wrong? That by using purified anti-oxidants we are mopping up the very free radicals in our bodies that are vital for healing and regeneration. For vitality. What if we are turning off our natural apoptosis and inducing proliferation disease and inducing cancer formation.

apoptosis2

Figure 16: Hydrogen peroxide signaling and apoptosis

So from the above information it should start to become obvious that radicals and oxidative compounds including superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroixide and the hydroxyl radical are key functional molecules in cellular signaling and apoptosis. That provide key mediators of biological processes including apoptosis, stem cell regeneration, neurotransmitter function.

growth factor signalling

What if the oxidative stress response was an adaption to change in the earths atmospheric conditions. The changes in the gas composition of our planet.

Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide is another critical signalling molecule in our bodies and also a radical. Important in cardiovascular health and sexual function. The enzymes responsible for activity require iron and zinc.

radicals

Nitric oxide is important radical  in vascular health and vasodilation.

NO

Just think what would happen without the right signalling in the body. Disease!

Balance and homeostatis

There is obviously a balance between health and disease. What if the pendulum has swung too far towards the anti-oxidant side of the pendulum? Low energy, low vitality, an inability to think on your feet and adapt. Too many radicals in your body and you have a psychotic break from this physical reality and your neurotransmitters are modified to produce compounds such as DMT and you have a mystical experience.

 

radicals

There is a potential misunderstanding about antioxidants, yes they create stability but radicals enable adaption. The body obtains balance by doing the opposite to what you add externally. So if you add antioxidants externally then your body does not need to produce as much of its own antioxidant system. Also, your body will also produce more oxidants to compensate for the antioxidants used topically. The bodies oxidant system which is involved in the following biological processes. 1) Hydroxyl radical OH* apoptosis or pre-programmed cell death, 2) Nitric oxide NO* in blood pressure and sexual function, 3) hydrogen peroxide as a signalling molecule in many biological pathways.

Balance Hypothesis

balance

 

If antioxidants are added in excess in the diet then there are many biological processes are likely to be effected. Do we know where these antioxidants are going in our bodies? They love coordinating with metals in enzymes and binding to proteins. The can act as inhibitors.

From a Darwinian perspective the plants have developed a defense system which impacts on the health and well-being of animals that feed on the plants. Plants and animals have evolved in a dynamic relationship at many levels they need one another and are tied to a symbiotic relationship exchanging gases CO2 and O2. However, when highly purified antioxidants that are added into a humans diet which capture radicals (singlet electron compounds) can prevent many biochemical pathways. Therefore, impacting on human health and well being. The more anti-oxidants added the the more stable the system, means it has less ability to adapt and it remains fixed in a state of lower energy. The body will reduce the production of its own anti-oxidant systems and enzymes because it can use the external source of anti-oxidants. To counter balance the effects of external anti-oxidants the body will also generate more free radicals to compensate for the anti-oxidants capturing these signaling molecules and trying to overcome the inhibition of many essential biological processes.

So the initial use of anti-oxidants will produce an improvement due to the compensation and changes that occur within the body to address the use of additional anti-oxidants in the diet. This clearly indicates that purified anti-oxidants used in the diet are initially beneficial but then are detrimental to ones health and well-being and lead to disease.

On the other hand if additional oxidants are added to the body then the reverse will be observed. The body will produce more anti-oxidant enzyme to compensate and the body will also accelerate in its energy levels and will be able to think faster due to the chemistry going on in the body. This is the functional benefits obtained with honey which has the following enzyme system to generate hydrogen peroxide from glucose and glucose oxidase. So honey also performs radical generation in the form of superoxide and the hydroxyl radical which are the anti-microbial compounds present in the honey. So the health and well being attributed to New Zealands Manuka honey comes from the ability of radical generation.

Therefore, there is a significant body of evidence for the health giving properties of radicals and their involvement in many chemical reactions, the ability to obtain energy, the ability to produce neurotranmitters and the ability to have health and well being through various functional biochemical pathways which are able to take energy from protein, carbohydrate and lipids and produce a diverse array of biochemicals in combination with the functional radical chemistry in our bodies that stimulates health and well-being.