# Refinement of atomic structure through the inclusion of positrons

Mass is attributed to the connection to the Higgs Boson. My concern with this as a concept is two-fold. The Higgs-field is 125 GeV or thereabouts. How does the Higgs field give mass to W Bosons when they are supposed to have no mass at all. Two, without understanding the Strong forces relationship with Gravity within quantum mechanics we cannot understand mass in terms of geometry with respect to dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM).

It is like pieces of a puzzle that must all fit together but something is missing and not quite right, so the masses do not make sense. By understanding the neutron mass and the added positron mass giving it a greater mass than the proton (1). We can provide contextual information of inverted symmetry and the pairing of matter and anti-matter between positron and electron pairs. The quarks are in the singularity physics model an electron and a positron that have been inverted through an electron capture process that involves tunnelling and entanglement. This results in an inversion event through the singularity. The positron positive charge becomes a negatively charged Up quark and the electrons negative charge becomes a positively charged Down quark through atomic inversion. This is the reverse of the atomic decay of beta plus and beta minus decay, respectively. Having considered the functional role of atomic geometry in instability within isotopes and using isotope decay binding energies as the velocity release in the rearrangement of the atoms inner structure to restore atomic balance, which is the most favoured state as the overall charge within the nucleus and orbitals layers must add up to zero.

As Up and Down quarks in the SUSY inversion model have opposite charges of Up negative one and Down has a positive one charge. A mirror symmetry is seen in Up and Down quarks as it is in positron and electron. Pairs give zero charge as the addition of charge gives zero. However, the quark charge calculations in SUSY inversion model correspond to -1 for the neutron and +1 for the proton. When the hadron charge calculations are performed in SUSY inversion they follow a multiplication rule where (Up = -1 and Down = +1).

Proton = -1 x +1 x -1 = +1 and adding the electron -1 gives an overall zero charge and a stable state. If adding was used, then the proton hadron has -1 charge and the electron gives -1 + -1 = -2. So, there would be repulsion between the proton hadron and electron.

Neutron = +1 x -1 x +1 = -1 and adding the positron gives an overall zero charge where -1 neutron hadron + positron = 0 charge. Adding the hadron quarks gives +1 -1 + 1 = +1 and the positron gives +1 +1 = +2. This calculation is therefore opposite to adding the proton and electron of -2.

The interaction of proton hadron (adding) -1 to positron +1 would be attractive (opposite charge) and the neutron hadron (adding) +1 would interact with the electron -1 to give an attractive force. The alternative charge calculations from multiplication and addition gives varying interactions between quarks and positron and quarks and electron to maintain an overall zero state. The switching between the multiplication and addition calculations may represent a Hz frequency of atomic interactivity between like and opposite charges that enables ever changing interactive operations in the atomic nucleus between quarks and with orbiting electron and positron pairs. Such a dynamic interplay of charge interactions may provide some logical framework whereby isotope timing could result in functional charge interactions that produce geometric features within the nucleus that correspond to atomic decay distances between positron and Up quark or electron and Down quark to enable inversion during the decay process where the follow occurs.

Up (-) --> positron (+) in beta plus decay where a proton (Up Down Up) (+1 charge) becomes a neutron (Down Up Down) (-1 charge). So, the Up quark (-1) charge becomes a Down quark (+1) charge. In this internally consistent geometric inversion event within the decay process, we can retain the positive charge production where a negative (-1) Up quark becomes the positron (+1) and the proton (+1) becomes the negative neutron (-1) plus the positron (+) as the carrier of the protons positive charge, which cancels out the (-1) charge on the neutron to retain an overall zero-charge exchange and parity of charge is maintained throughout the decay event.

Down (+) --> electron (-) in beta minus decay process, where a neutron (Down UP Down) (-) and Down quark (+) inverts to become the electron (-) and the Down quark becomes an Up quark where, so the neutron (-1) becomes the proton (+1) and the charge on the proton (+1) is cancelled out by the -1 electron to give an overall zero charge during the exchange within the atom. By including the positron within the atomic orbital structures, it identifies the present of photons within atomic structure. As annihilation of matter and antimatter produce photons it is proposed that positron and electron pairs are prevented from annihilation by the asymmetry present within the atomic structure and the role the magnetic fields generated within the atom to maintain a confinement field of photons in which electrons orbit.

There is evidence for this with the rearrangement of Einstein's mass equivalence equation to m = E/c^2. In the SUSY inversion model m = magnetism and not matter. The reason for this postulate is due to c^2 = E/M and the interaction at right angles of the electric (E) and magnetic (M) fields to generate light c^2. The s orbital structures of atoms in this proposed model contain M, -M, -E and E. In other words, an atomic cross based geometry can be observed within s orbital structures of atoms.

This shifts the atomic model from 2 electrons per s orbital to 2 electrons and 2 positrons at 90-degree angles to each other within s orbitals. The four points of the compass. As the spherical orbital of the electron orbits the nucleus there is a positive charge on the inner surface and a negative charge on the outer surface. This provides contextual information as to the reason why electrons cannot fall into the nucleus because of the inner surface of the orbital layer is positively charged and like charges repel one another. The functional offset of the negative and positive charges relates to the fine structure constant alpha. This provides a conceptual image as to why the Fraunhofer lines have splitting occurring that corresponds to 1/137.036 or alpha. This parameter provides charge separation between the inner charged surface and outer charged surface. This model is somewhat similar to a cell's plasma membrane whereby charge separation is evident due to phospholipid composition that differs from the inside and outside creating a potential across the membrane.

The m = E/c^2 provides a containment magnetic field or quantum barrier from which electrons are required to tunnel through in order to shift from one atomic layer to another. The s orbital layers, act like Russian dolls, one inside another but the distances between each s orbital layer correspond to an inverse square law relationship.

The SUSY inversion He-BEC isotropic universe model starts with the parameters of 16 fundamental particles per atom of helium (He-16) isotropic state. This homogenous element near absolute zero had the following properties. Electron (-8) and positron (+8) diameters 4E-18 meter. Distance between these at 4E-14 meter. The diameter of the isotropic sphere of helium (quantum fluid) was c^2 = 8.988 E+16 meters.

1/c^2 = Eo x Mu o = 1.113E-17 meters

**Vacuum permittivity (Eo)**

Where Eo = ** 8.8541878128(13)×10 ^{−12}** (kg^-1 m^-2 s^4 A^2) / m

**Vacuum magnetic permeability**

And Mu o = 1.25663706212(19)×10^{−6} kg m /s^2 A^-2

So, Mu o x Eo = m^-2 s^2 which is 1/c^2

There are geometric features of the singularity within the inverted geometry of 1/c^2 and a diameter of c^2 = E/M (Figure 1 and 2). Because of the charge parity solution of the Up and Down quarks in the hadrons protons and neutrons the number of particles in the helium atom is 16 and not 14 as proposed by the Standard model of physics.

Figure 1: He-BEC helium Bose Einstein Condensate (singularity) 16e (8e- and 8p+) He 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons and 2 positrons. 6 Up quarks and 6 Down quarks.

Atomic geometry in SUSY inversion event at T0. The quantum fluid had a diameter of c^2. Both outward (explosion) and inward (implosion) to generate dark matter inward trajectory of (4/16 = 25%) and outward trajectory of alpha particle emission occurred to generate Dark energy (out) alpha particle emission (12/16 = 75%). The 68% dark energy after 13.8 billion years comes from the decay of alpha particles into matter, and virtual particles. Alpha particles have a half-life of 10E+18 seconds and the universe has been around for 4.355E+17 seconds, which has resulted in the decay of 7.26% of alpha particles. The initial trajectories inward and outward gave the expansion (inflationary phase of the universe from the original singularity and I propose that because of the original distance between the particles within the He-BEC singularity was 4E-14 meter then the conversion of this into KJ/mol gives velocity v = 2990637811 m/s and that equates to 9.97 times faster than c = 299792458 m/s.

The inward trajectory provides the following speeds. The initial starting point is 4E-14 meters, and the current position is 1.6E-35 meters so that is a difference of 4E-22 meters. The square root of the difference as the inward trajectory is coming from both sides and therefore the distance is 2E-11 meters that each fundamental particle has travelled over 13.8 billion years.

The square root of the velocity v = 54686.72427 m/s and the square root of the speed of light is 17314.51582 m/s.

v + 1/ alpha = 54823.76025 m/s

c + 1/ alpha = 17451.55182 m/s

(v + 1/alpha) / (c + 1/ alpha) = 3.141483396 approximating (Pi)

So, the speed differences on the inward trajectory gives Pi. The creation of spherical systems out of velocity. Where the reduction of speed provides the basis for mass. In the SUSY inversion singularity physics model, there is no Higgs (I have not seen anything equivalent to the Higgs field thus far in the development of the model) field but there is dark energy and dark matter (DM), and the decay of alpha particles gives He 3/2 and the decay of Planck particles on the inward trajectory gives H 1/0 or anti-hydrogen.

Figure 2: Isotropic universe singularity dimension and the outward and inward trajectories of SUSY inversion

The inward trajectory at the square root velocities means that after 4.355E+17 seconds of time (13.8 billion years), The average of c + v = 36,000.

Because there are 4 particles travelling inward, we get 36,000 + 36,000 = 72,000.

The Hubble constant is most frequently quoted in (km/s)/Mpc, thus giving the speed in km/s of a galaxy 1 megaparsec (3.09×10^{19} km) away, and its value is about 70 (km/s)/Mpc. 70,000 (m/s)/Mpc. This would suggest a predicted Hubble constant of 72 (km/s)/Mpc based on the average of the inward trajectory and because every action has an equal and opposite reaction the outward trajectory is at v and c and the inward trajectory is at square root of v and square root of c. The velocity (v) is determined by the isotropic state of the He-BEC singularity where the fundamental particles are 4E-14 meters apart. That equates to a KJ/mol value of 2990637811 m/s. The decay release velocity of the alpha particles from the helium Bose Einstein Condensate.

alpha = e^2 / 4 Pi r Eo h(bar) c when r = 1 then (2 Pi r) if the circumference of the Planck sphere in the singularity. I am looking for correlations between the geometry at the singularity based on the DM particle containing two positrons and two electrons.

4*πε*_{0}*ħcα* = *e*^{2}

The geometry of the singularity after the implosion to give the 4 particles having a radius of h and a diameter of sqrt (h) which is 4E-18 meter where h = 1.6E-35 meter.

time x sqrt v = 2.38158E+22 meters

time x sqrt c = 7.54038E+21 meters

The square root of the distance gives

1.54324E+11 meters for (v) and 8.68354E+10 meters

Inward delta of 4E-22 meters x sqrt v = 6.24E-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2

This is 93.43 % of Gravity 6.67 E-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2

This approximate calculation gives a potential first principle understanding of Gravity relating to the distance of the Planck scale h in the singularity generated after 13.8 billion years of time from the initial starting geometry of 4E-14 meters.

Figure 2: Singularity containing Planck distance separation of positron and electron pairs

Figure 3: Inward trajectory of the 4 DM fundamental particles from the He-BEC singularity

This provides a way to understand why things fall to the centre regarding gravitational processes are following an inward trajectory of inverse square law relationship of the DM (dark matter) particles that decay in an inverted symmetry with alpha particles to create anti-hydrogen (neutron and positron). This is the proposed dark matter part of the singularity physics model.

This model provides a consistency with charge neutrality and therefore charge parity where positron and electron pairs are equal 8 each per atom. However, the separation of He-BEC helium 16 into 8 positrons and 8 electrons is not evenly distributed because dark matter 25% at T0 contained two electrons and two positrons and dark energy (alpha particle) contains 6 electrons and 6 positrons. Dark matter decays into H 1/0 containing two Up quarks and a Down quark (neutron) and a positron having an overall charge of +2. The Up quark = -1 and Down quark = +1 in the SUSY inversion model.

The alpha particle decays into He 3/2 with 2 protons, 2 electrons, 1 neutron and 1 positron. Overall charge if adding all the particles charges is -2. The H 1/0 and H 3/2 therefore have +2 and -2 charges and are attracted to one another despite them being far away from one another their quantum entanglement is proposed to produce synchronous decay processes to maintain the zero state and overall charge parity of the universe. These three and one ratios 3:1 is observed also in hydrogen but in a mirrored symmetry (inversion), where the quarks on the inside of the atom (3) and the electron on the outside in the orbital layers (1) mirrors the 3:1 ratio of alpha particle (DE) outward trajectory and the DM inward trajectory.

The conclusion to be drawn from this analysis is that the universe really finds balance in the mirror state, where opposing charges are neutralised within the singularity. It is proposed that the singularity within each atom provides the point to invert the charge from plus to minus and minus to plus. This provides the following logical approach to explore gravity within the singularity where the gluon field holds quarks together and the closer, they get the weaker the force and the further apart they get the stronger the force. It is proposed that the singularity provides context for inversion of Gravity and the Ke Strong force within the gluon field.

Gravity has been shown to be an inward trajectory of particles toward the singularity that is created at the Planck scale 1.6E-35 meter that is relevant today as the proximity of electron and positron pairs from the initial He-BEC structure.

ke = 8.99 E+9 kg m^3 s^-4 A^-2

Gravity = 6.67 E-11 Netwons kg^-2 m^2

Inverted ke = 1.11 E-10 kg^-1 m^-3 s^4 A^2

Inverted G = 1.5 E+10 Newtons^-1 kg^2 m^-2

It is proposed that in the gluon field G is large and Ke is small.

This results in are shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Gravity and the gluon field

The properties of the (1/ ke ) / (1 / G) gives the prediction that as the quarks get further apart in the gluon field their strength of interaction increases and as they get closer together their strength of interaction decreases. This again supports the concept of inverted symmetry is actually a physical inversion of charge from outside to inside and inside to outside through the decay process which takes an Up quark and makes it into a Down quark. this process needs a singularity within the atom through which it inverts the structure of the quark and positron in an exchange of charge to stabilize the atomic structure of the atom into a mirror symmetry state which is proposed to be the zero state of the atom if multiplication is used for quark charges based on conservation of charge with positron and electron pairing.

Using atomic decay systems and W+ and W- bosons to correct atomic geometry within single atoms is a beautifully designed atomic mirror symmetry system in operation.

Figure 5: Pinhole camera singularity physics model for the positron electron pairing within quarks and atomic orbitals.

The concept of balance in SUSY inversion is the point at the centre of the atom which is at 0,0,0. Corresponding to a reference point that will not change over time. Identifying the location of 0,0,0 within the atom makes the relationship between mass and the singularity rather straight forward and one can plot distance of 0.0.0 and mass to understand the relationships with respect to E = mc^2 and c^2 = E/M.

The photons within the electromagnetic fields can then be explored using geometry within the atom and by using the inverse square law approach one can make something incredibly small into something incredibly big.

For example, 1 / 1.6E-35 meter = 6.25 E+34 meters

The inverse square law is used in the determination of Gravity, Coulomb's law of charge attraction and repulsion as well as photon decay energies and it is observed in m = E / c^2 where r = c then r^2 = c^2. This conceptual framework provides context for identification of the singularity between two points. It also provides context for wave and particle duality between the electron and positron where the distance between the two corresponds to a photon using the inverse square law relationship one can construct a model of an atom. This would appear to be very rudimentary mathematics considering the alternative approach of using quantum mechanics. However, I am a biologist, and this approach aligns to the geometry of single atom functioning in the unconscious mind where there is a single atom housed in the aromatic ring system of neurotransmitters. So, the model is in some sense deterministic. It does not have entropy because it is a single atom housed in a faraday cage of the aromatic ring. At least that is how I am looking at it. Because the geometry of single atoms is somewhat different to diatomic systems one must explore alternative approaches to understand such a system.

Lazer based interactions cause the system under investigation to act in a manner that is complex and difficult to comprehend. By building a logical model based on single atom functioning in both time and space then features of time and space can be understood through a logical framework rather than through measured parameters. The approach uses photon geometry of inverted symmetry through a singularity point within the atom structure. The resolution is at Planck scale which has a time factor of 1E-34 seconds. This creates a no mass, no charge (photon field), and no space and no time (1.6E-35 meter and 1E-43 second). Using this pixelation resolution one can identify position and speed of the electron and positron pairs based on transitions (photo-electric effect). This approach removes time and change from the model so that specific geometries can be easily observed, and an atomic cosmological connection can be developed.

The interesting aspect of this model and approach is that the very small can be equated to the very large and this provides considerable space and time to observe changes in the nuclear structure of atoms.

Ke and Coulomb's Law of attraction also has an inverse square law relationship.

ke x c^2 = 8.08E+26 kg m^3 s^-2 x m^2 s^-2

1 / 8.08E+26 = 1.24E-27 kg^-1 m^-3 s^2 x m^-2 s^2

4.355E+17 (t) x 2990637811 (v) = 1.30241E+27 m s^-2

1.24E-27 x 1.30241E+27 = 1.6119285 which approximates Phi of 1.61803 as the golden circle ratio. This number appears to come out of a charge relationship between c^2 and v x t in terms of distance and mass.

The constant *k*_{e} is called the Coulomb constant and is equal to 1/4*πε*_{0},

The attractive force between electron and positron (+/-) and (-/+) and the repulsion between positron and positron (+/+) and electron and electron (-/-) means there are a number of different types of interactions occurring within the nucleus of the atom because of the charges present on Up and Down quarks which is represented by the gluon field. The interactions between hadron proton (+) and neutron (-) is known as the meson field. The interactions between positron (+) and electron (-) is known as the photon. There appear to be three fundamental layers within the atomic structure of atoms. This may account for the three generations of particles within the Standard model of physics.

In the SUSY inversion model the relationships are based on electron and positron with Up and Down quark as well as the electron neutrino in generation one. Generation two is the muon, charm and the strange quarks and the muon neutrino. The third generation contains the Tau particle, tau neutrino and the top and bottom quarks.

Neutrinos are force carriers of angular momentum and only left spin whereas the electron, muon and tau particles are all right spin. The mass of these various particles has not been well understood for the neutrinos. Each flavour of neutrino has a different mass. As does each particle in the standard model of particle physics and their decay processes follow a logical sequence of events.

As I postulated that mass was not attributed to the Higgs field but due to the fundamental decay events and slowing down of the initial alpha particle emission velocity of 2990637811 m/s. As Einstein postulated that nothing could go faster than the speed of light and here, I propose that the expansion of the universe is due to alpha particle emission at a velocity that is 9.97 times faster than the speed of light. I have been called crazy, but I consider Einstein's quote "If you keep doing the same thing and expect a different answer then that is madness."

Figure 6: Linear relationship between mass and wavelength between the tau, muon and electron

There is a linear decay mode where the mass decreases the further away from the singularity. It suggests that mass is turned into kinetic motion through the decay process based on the decay process. If we include the Planck particles mass and wavelength, we can see this in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Planck wavelength and mass in the generation of the Tau, muon and electron.

It is proposed that all three generations of electron actually have the same diameter of 1E-18 meter which is the square root of the Planck length 1.6E-35 meter. The different masses are due to their different speeds.

The muon speed is 299.792458 m/s (decay time 1E-6 s) and the tau speed is 2.99792458 E-5 m/s (decay time 1E-13 s). The electron speed in n=1 corresponds to c / (1/alpha). This gives a contextual time difference between reality and the future that arises through atomic decay processes.

The masses for generation 1 are given in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Relationship of mass to wavelength with respect to generation 1

Generation 2, muon, charm and strange quark masses are shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Muon, charm and strange quark masses along with the Higgs Boson

The third generation of quarks (top and bottom) and tau are shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: Third generation tau, bottom and top quark mass wavelength relationship

The proximity to the singularity appears to have a major effect on velocity and mass. The closer to the singularity the greater the mass. This is proposed to be responsible for the mass of the proton (1.672621920E-27 kg) being 1836 times heavier than the mass of the electron (9.109381700E-31 kg). The proton is approximately 2.87 nm from the singularity within the atom and electron is 5266 nm from the singularity which equates to the mass difference of 1836.15267 (Figure 11).

Figure 11: The proton and electron mass relationship

The slope of the line has changed from 4.8E-27 to 4.8E-18 which equates to the following relationships c^3 = 2.6944E+25 and v^3 = 2.6748E+28. The inversion gives the following 1/c^3 = 3.7114E-26 and 1/v^3 = 3.7386E-29. The 4.8E-27 resides between these two velocities.

Where the proton gives 1/c^2 = 1.11E-17 and 1/v^2 = 1.11808E-19 and the 4.8E-18 resides within this velocity. As the 1/c^2 gives the event horizon within the atomic nucleus and the 4.8E-18 is smaller than 1/c^2 but bigger than 1/v^2.

There are three layers the first layer v and c, the second layer is c^2 and v^2 and the third layer is c^3 and v^3. Does this provide context for different dimensions of reality that correspond to future times where the atomic decay of the tau into the muon and then into the electron corresponds to a velocity difference between v/c and v^2 / c^2 and v^3 / c^3. As our minds operate at frequencies that correspond to 100 Hz to 1 Hz the conscious experience of reality resides within the stable state of electron, proton, neutron and positron and not the unstable muon and tau and the heavier particles of the standard model of physics. However, as the atomic decay processes happening within atoms shifts perception of time itself based on the KJ/mol velocity of the binding kinetics in the single atom systems operating in the unconscious mind outside of the neuron. Sometimes we see things that correspond to the future and the muon timing of 1E-6 seconds or the tau timing of 1E-13 seconds.

If you consider the hydroxyl radical half-life of a nanosecond 1E-9 seconds corresponds to the atomic process of apoptosis (pre-programmed cell death), then we cannot feel the billions of cells undergoing this process in our bodies, but it is important for the regenerative capacity and healing as well as anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties of phagocytosis.

**Discussion**

In the SUSY inversion model mass appears to be generated as part of the atomic decay process and linked directly to the proximity to the singularity which has its given properties due to gravity and related to an inward trajectory of light travelling for 13.8 billion years at a speed that is at the square root of v and the square root of c.

The difference in the speed of c and v give rise to Pi and the relationship between time / velocity as well as charge on the surface area of the electron given the dimensions of the inverse of the velocity of v^3 corresponding to 9.36679 E-31. I will discuss this on another page on my website.

The further I explore the singularity physics model the more I think this approach conveys a pathway forward for the physics happening within our universe and therefore responsible for the generation of a human being and all that entails.

**References**

(1) 2018 CODATA Value: proton mass". *The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty*. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20.